I just recently finished reading "It's a Jungle In There" by David Rosenbaum. This cognitive psychology overview, with a Darwinian perspective, touched on 'perceiving more than is really there'. Phenomena often reflect "top-down" processing. The term refers to high-level interpretation biasing perception, so perception is not just dictated by immediate sensory data or "bottom-up" processing, but is also shaped by expectations. Over-competition and under-cooperation among relevant neural representatives can bias perception.
The last course I taught in Richmond, VA was Cervical-Cranio-Mandibular Restoration, and it was attended by a number of 'neural representatives' that were once "bottom-up" processors and are now "top-down" perceivers. I really enjoyed their cooperation and non-competitive communication!