The following article has been added to PRI references for Zone of Apposition.
This article provides evidence that lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves spirometric parameters, lung volumes, diaphragm strength, increased diaphragm length (ZOA), and improvement in maximum exercise performance.
PRI techniques performed clinically are the non-surgical avenue for reducing hyperinflation and therefore achieving the same outcomes seen here with surgical intervention.
Lando Y, Boiselle PM, Shade D, Furukawa S, Kuzma AM, Travaline JM, Criner GJ. Effect of lung volume reduction surgery on diaphragm length in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 Mar;159(3):796-805.
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